In , people were employed in pharmaceutical-producing companies . in the Pharmaceutical Price Ordinance ( Arzneimittelpreisverordnung). Seit sinkt die Zahl der Apotheken in Deutschland. Filialstruktur 05 . in der Arzneimittelpreisverordnung leicht angepasst. Index ( = ). wird in Deutschland durch die Arzneimittelpreisverordnung reguliert. and debt crisis, in particular in the second half of and
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The German healthcare system
Narcotics are subject to the narcotics law and may only be distributed under special rules and documentation. Furthermore, all parties, including the insured, the various associations and the funding bodies, arzneiimttelpreisverordnung entitled to legally appeal the decisions reached by the associations and government authorities as part of the service guarantee contract. Family members without an income of their own are usually insured free of charge and certain groups of insurees e.
Depending on the funding body, the hospitals are public local district, state, federal government or statutory corporation hospitalsnon-profit the funding bodies have religious, humanitarian or social goals or private the funding body has commercial goals, e.
Peculiar to Germany is that physicians are prohibited from dispensing medicine to patients, except for small amounts afzneimittelpreisverordnung samples and medicine required directly during the consultation. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Compulsory health arzneimittelpreisverorsnung was introduced for all residents in the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 st January The health insurers are contractually obliged to negotiate a budget and a nursing care allowance with each hospital in the hospital plan.
A main feature of the statutory health insurance scheme is social reconciliation Solidarausgleichwhich is expressed in two main ways: Supply of medicine in Germany Under German law, medicine is defined as materials and preparations of materials intended arzneimittel;reisverordnung cure, alleviate, prevent or diagnose diseases, ailments, physical injury or other physical complaints when applied to or in the human or animal body.
Number of statutory and private health insurance funds and insurees in Germany [ 1 ]. All approved arzneimittelpreieverordnung, as well as all companies and institutions that manufacture, assess, store, package or distribute drugs are subject to state monitoring.
As part of the health risk portfolio process, the applicant has to release physicians and any other involved arzneimittelpriesverordnung workers from their non-disclosure agreements. Arzneimiittelpreisverordnung nursing facility resident can only be evicted in important, justifiable cases in this case, the facility is obliged to find the resident a comparable facility and cover the moving costs.
Its decisions are binding for both the health insurance companies and SHI service providers. Only employees whose regular income is above the insurance threshold, civil servants, clergy, private school teachers, pensioners and the self-employed can choose the private health insurance system over the SHI scheme.
This coverage is not permitted to cost more than the highest SHI premium and must be guaranteed by the private health insurance companies without individual risk assessment contractual obligation. Funding of the German healthcare system [ 1 ].
The German healthcare system
Nursing insurance in Germany Nursing insurance encompasses and organizes the tasks of the ambulatory and nursing treatment. Medical association members elect representative assembly delegates, who, in turn, elect a board of directors.
The contracts negotiated by the association are binding for all SHI physicians. Both the state and federal associations are financed by member contributions, which are deducted by the associations for each SHI physician from the lump sum compensation paid by the health insurers [ 127910 ]. Arzeimittelpreisverordnung principles of social rights are used as the framework for ensuring social security in cases of illness, and must be followed by both the health insurance companies and health service providers.
Statistiken zur Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung, Support Center Support Center.
Rehabilitation centers and similar, specialized inpatient facilities are not considered hospitals. In contrast to the associations of SHI physicians, medical associations 17 in total focus on the regulation of the professional practice. Over-the-counter medicines can be sold in grocery and drug stores, as well as in pharmacies.
The premiums collected by the public and private health and nursing insurance companies, on the other hand, are employed for direct healthcare services, such as the remuneration of service providers e.
The states also directly fund healthcare facilities, such as the university clinics and state psychiatric hospitals. Mail ordering of medicine is permitted in principle, however only by a pharmacist approved to operate a public pharmacy and the process must moreover meet specified quality assurance requirements.
Furthermore, the Medical Review Board of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds Medizinischer Dienst der Krankenversicherung, MDKan institution of the health and nursing insurance companies, also conducts external quality monitoring, whereby homes can be visited by appointment, care facilities without appointment, documents can be viewed, and persons requiring care, family members and staff can be questioned. The results of inpatient quality monitoring are also publicized. These self-administration committees report to the state.
Under certain conditions, hospitals can also treat patients on an outpatient basis. Once a hospital is included in the hospital plan, it is SHI-approved and obliged to provide treatment to SHI insurees in the case of university clinics, registration in the university directory is considered equivalent.
A variety of different funding bodies meet the expense of these services. Assessment of the nursing level required is based primarily on the time family members need to carry out nursing tasks as opposed to the time required by a professional caregiver. Sincepsychotherapists can also apply for the status of SHI-approved physicians, if they are members of the applicable association of statutory health insurance physicians and participate in the SHI fee distribution system see below.
The hospitals are represented at state level by associations of the funding bodies of approved hospitals.
Hospital physicians are only allowed to treat patients on an outpatient basis in exceptional cases. A defined proportion of the lump-sum compensation is assigned to each SHI physician. Generally the medicines are propriety medicinal products; only in rare cases are medicines prepared on-site in pharmacies e. The pharmacy law Apothekengesetz, ApoG and the rules governing the operation of pharmacies Apothekenbetriebsordnung, ApBetrO specify the prerequisites and requirements for the operation of a pharmacy e.
Thus, overall, the healthcare system is organized around the principle of solidarity Solidarprinzipwhich provides that every member of a supportive society is entitled to assistance from the other members of the society in the case of illness. The subsidization model [ 1 ].